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Human Security Fact Sheets

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1967 Arab-Israeli War and Resolution 242

The Arab-Israeli War, also referred to as the Six-Day War, was a bloody and decisive battle fought between Israel and an Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance. It led to the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, and has had a lasting impact on subsequent attempts to forge a final status peace a...

Beyond the ballot box: Violent extremist Islamism

Although modern Islamism stems from Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, the ideologies that developed in its wake went far beyond its founder’s aspirations for a return to religious fundamentals. This ideological evolution is best evidenced in the creation of al-Qaeda. This factsheet is part of a broader s...

Chronic Conflict in Iraq Part 1: The Iran-Iraq War

The Iran-Iraq War was a conventional armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Ba’athist Iraqi Republic. It began with Iraq’s invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980 and ended with a ceasefire commencing 20 August 1988.

Chronic Conflict in Iraq Part 2: Invasion of Kuwait and 1990 Gulf War

On 2 August 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait; six days later Saddam Hussein announced the annexation of the small Gulf state as an Iraqi province. By 16 January Iraqi troops remained in Kuwait and a day later an international coalition led by the United States (US) commenced ‘Operation Desert Storm’. The al...

Chronic Conflict in Iraq Part 3: The 2003 Invasion

The 2003 Iraq War was a US-led invasion of Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein and the Ba’athist regime from power. The principal justification for the invasion, as argued by the US and UK, was that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). As with the 1990/91 Gulf War, the Iraqi milita...

Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords (1993-1999) were a series of agreements forged in an attempt to negotiate an Israel-Palestine peace agreement. Although the Accords were ultimately ineffective, they represented a breakthrough in Israel-Palestine relations and have shaped the administration of the Occupied Palestini...

Settlements

Settlements remain one of the most controversial aspects of the Israeli occupation. Israel’s systematic and expansive policy of developing Jewish communities represents a threat to Palestinian statehood and undermines Israel’s international reputation.

Shia Islamism and Iranian Influence

In 2006, as Iraq’s Shia majority watched the execution of former President Saddam Hussein, one clear victor emerged from America’s controversial war: Iran. Iraq’s transition from Iran’s fierce enemy, to probable ally was a major success for the Islamic Republic and one of the biggest shifts in the r...

Sunni and Shia Islam: Historical Context to Modern Conflict

After the death of the Prophet Mohammad in 632 CE, the Muslim community diverged over how to select the next leader of the Islamic community they had formed on the Arabian Peninsula. One group supported succession by Ali, the Prophet Mohammad’s closest male family member. Many of these believers wou...

Sykes-Picot Agreement

The Sykes-Picot agreement divided the Levant into spheres of influence between France and Britain. These lines still exist today as Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria. The political and demographic upheaval created by these new borders continued well after independence.

The Balfour Declaration

The Balfour Declaration (2 November 1917) was a statement of support by the British Government, approved by the War Cabinet, for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. At the time, the region was part of Ottoman Syria administered from Damascus. While the Declaratio...

The Rise of Islamism and the Muslim Brotherhood

The fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1924 triggered a crisis in the Muslim world, challenging Islam’s position in the world order. Particularly with the rise of the nation-state, Muslims’ transnational Ummah, or community, faced potential political diminution. This crisis provoked a new wave of thinkin...

Think Tanks in West Asia - North Africa

Think Tanks can be defined as policy research institutes that conduct and disseminate research, and advise policy-makers to design effective public policy. There is surprisingly little knowledge on what the role of think tanks is, why academic research is not widely used to inform policy-making, as ...
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