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Human Security Publications

22 Jul 2019

Rethinking the Concept of Human Security and Its Approaches to Preventing and Combating Violent Extremism in Tunisia

This country report reflects an examination of the data collected in Tunisia over 12-months. Initially, it grapples with some definitional issues pertaining to human security, outlining how the concept is well-present at the perception level, but absent at the procedural knowledge level. It also ext...
Author : Maher Zoghlemi and research assistant Helmi Toumi
08 Jul 2019

Manufacturing Employment in Jordan

Manufacturing activity is a strong indicator of a country’s economic development. While Jordan's agricultural activity is flourishing, its steadily-growing manufacturing sector continues to face challenges as it seeks to play a greater role in the kingdom’s economy. This report gives an overview of ...
Author : Kareem Rosshandler
08 Jul 2019

The Battle of Ben Guerdane: Between Savagery and Resilience

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from field research conducted by the Jasmine Foundation for Research and Communication in Ben Guerden, Tunisia. The brief discusses how locals in a marginalised border area in Tunisia tackle issues like violent extremism, the state of human securit...
Author : Maher Zoghlemi and research assistant Helmi Toumi
30 Jun 2019

Sectarian Politics, Human Security, and the Quest to Prevent Violent Extremism in Lebanon

This Country Report presents an examination of the attitudes and perceptions in six communities across Lebanon: Baalbek; Hay el Seloum; Saida; Tripoli; Zgharta and Kfarnabrakh. Specifically, it examines how Human Security is conceptualised in these communities and it captures the local variations in...
Author : Zeina El-Helou, Sami Zoughaib, May Tamim, Dr Neven Bondokji
27 Jun 2019

Syrian Refugees and Social Cohesion in Jordan: A Closer Look at Farming Communities in the Jordan Valley

Farming plays an instrumental role in Jordan's society, a field that has brought together Jordanian and Syrian workers. This report highlights Jordanian farmer views of their Syrian colleagues, the nature of social ties, and integration between them. The findings of this report are based on three fo...
Author : Kareem Rosshandler
12 Jun 2019

Embracing Social Exclusion in Douar Hicher: Isolation and Code Words

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from field research conducted by the Jasmine Foundation for Research and Communication in Dowar Hicher, Tunisia. The brief explores the relationship between human security programming, state-centric security policies, and PVE efforts there. It disc...
Author : Maher Zoghlemi and research assistant Helmi Toumi
03 Jun 2019

Towards Comprehensive Human Security in Tripoli

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from field research conducted by the Lebanese Centre for Policy Studies in Tripoli, Lebanon. The brief explores the relationship between human security programming, state-centric security policies, and PVE efforts there. It discusses interesting fa...
Author : Barik Mhadeen, based on field research and summary findings by LCPS team
15 May 2019

Human Security: Localised Insights from Baalbek

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from field research conducted by the Lebanese Centre for Policy Studies in Baalbek, Lebanon. The brief explores the relationship between human security programming, state-centric security policies, and PVE efforts there. It discusses interesting fa...
Author : Barik Mhadeen, based on field research and summary findings by LCPS team
01 May 2019

Determinants of Human Security and Hard Security in Ajloun

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from WANA Institute field research in Ajloun about the relation between human security, state-centric security policies, and efforts for preventing violent extremism. The brief offers unique insights into the perceptions of Ajloun residents of thes...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Barik Mhadeen, Lina AlHaj Ahmad
24 Apr 2019

A Read of Human and Population Security: Russeifa as a Case Study

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from WANA Institute field research in Russeifa. The brief offers unique insights into the perceptions of Russeifa residents of the relationship between human security, state security policies, and efforts aimed at preventing violent extremism. The ...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Lina AlHaj Ahmad
18 Apr 2019

Measuring the Impact of Refugee Labour Inclusion on the Host State Economy

This infographic brief contains the key takeaways from our research on Syrian refugee labour inclusion in Jordan. The research measures and tracks economic and social cohesion outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data collected over a 3-year period. The findings provide an objective starting ...
Author : WANA Institute, Mercy Corps
04 Apr 2019

Human Security in Tafileh: Trends and Perceptions

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from WANA Institute field research in Tafileh. The brief offers unique insights into the perceptions of Tafileh residents of the relationship between human security, state security policies, and efforts aimed at preventing violent extremism. The di...
Author : Barik Mhadeen, Dr Neven Bondokji
31 Mar 2019

Executive Summary: The Syrian Refugee Crisis in Jordan and Its Impact on the Jordanian Economy

In late 2016 — just months after the signing of the Jordan Compact — the WANA Institute and Mercy Corps set out to measure the impact of Syrian labour on Jordan’s economy. This research initiative, which has spanned two years, has resulted in several publications. Notable highlights and key conclusi...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart
31 Mar 2019

Syrian Refugee Return: Implications for the Jordanian Host State

This report — the first in a series of three studies — includes initial viewpoints on how the return of Syrian refugees would impact Jordanian labour, employment, housing rents, consumption, and government spending. Drawing primarily on the first-hand accounts of community-based organisations in Amm...
Author : Kareem Rosshandler
31 Mar 2019

The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Its Impact on the Jordanian Labour Market

This report — the second piece in a three-part study — reviews the body of research that has been conducted on Syrian participation in the labour market and assess the impact that the Syrian refugees had on the Jordanian labour market between 2012 and 2016.
Author : Dr Salem Ajluni, Dorsey Lockhart
31 Mar 2019

Investment and Employment Trends in Jordan's Key Economic Sectors

This publication provides policy-makers, donors, and other stakeholders with a relevant quantitative framework for understanding the relationship between investment and employment across key economic sectors in Jordan.
Author : Dr Salem Ajluni
13 Mar 2019

Determinants of Human Security and State-Centric Security in Karak

This policy brief presents the preliminary findings from WANA Institute field research with around 80 participants in Karak. The brief offers a descriptive account of the attitudes towards and perceptions of Karak residents of the relationship between human security, state security policies, and eff...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Lina AlHaj Ahmad
31 Jan 2019

Managers’ Reflections on Sub-Sector Performance, Investment, Worker Profile, and Technology Trends

The signing of the Jordan Compact in February 2016 unleashed a wave of optimism that a larger workforce combined with improved trade access for industrial goods would ignite a surge in growth of Jordan’s manufacturing sector. Between 2010 and 2016, GDP from manufacturing in Jordan grew by 13 per cen...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart
27 Sep 2018

ANALYSIS: How Security and Diplomacy Intersect in Russia and Turkey’s Idlib Deal

By mid-September 2018, the Bashar al-Assad regime was poised to launch a military campaign on the last major opposition stronghold in Idlib, Syria. With considerable military buildup, it seemed that a wide-scale operation to retake the province—one that would have threatened the estimated 2.5 millio...
Author : Alexander Decina
09 Sep 2018

Reconceptualising Security: Why Now?

This paper seeks to examine the regional peace and security nexus, with a specific focus on youth. It argues that without human-centric security paradigms with youth at their core, the persistence of state-centric security paradigms will continue to flare anger, yielding further regional instability...
Author : Barik Mhadeen
09 Aug 2018

Syrian Refugee Labour Inclusion Policy In Jordan: Emerging Trends Two Years In

April 2018 marked two years of Jordan’s landmark decision to allow limited working rights to Syrian refugees. This report provides an overview of the progress that has been made, the challenges that remain and the strategies that have been put in place to speed up the pace of Syrian refugee worker i...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart
30 Apr 2018

Syrian Refugee Employment Trends in Jordan and Future Perspectives

This report provides an overview of Syrian refugee employment trends within Jordan and seeks to answer key questions related to the size and configuration of the Syrian labour force, the degree to which Syrians are employed in their preferred sector, the impact of unemployment and sector transfer on...
Author : Shaddin Alhajahmad, Dorsey Lockhart, Katrina Barker
18 Apr 2018

A Region in Motion: Reflections from West Asia-North Africa

The West Asia-North Africa region sits at a complex crossroads where the impacts of chronic conflict, cultural fragmentation, and geopolitical interests collide. It is easy to think of the region’s future in pessimistic terms, yet while conflict and disaster provide a myriad of challenges, they also...
Author : WANA Institute
16 Apr 2018

Syrian Refugee Women and the Workforce

The employment of refugee women is a recurrent concern for international organisations and NGOs whose programmes provide protection and basic needs. Refugee women are commonly viewed as more vulnerable and at greater risk of poverty than their male counterparts. In the current context, many have sou...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart, Katrina Barker, Shaddin Alhajahmad
16 Apr 2018

Syrian Refugees and Social Cohesion in Jordan

As the Syrian civil war approaches its eighth year, in Jordan — where there are approximately 516,000 registered Syrians refugees living outside of the camps — observers are increasingly concerned with the relationship between these populations and host communities. Jordan’s February 2016 decision t...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart, Katrina Barker
19 Mar 2018

Post-Daesh and Still Desperate: The Ongoing Drivers of Violent Extremism in Jordan, Tunisia, and Lebanon

Despite the military defeat of Daesh, many of the drivers which initially encouraged individuals to join a violent extremist group have not been addressed. Radicalisation does not occur in a vacuum and it has been increasingly shown that individuals adhere to violent extremist ideology because of co...
Author : Alethea Osborne, Dr Neven Bondokji
09 Jan 2018

Social Identity and Radicalisation: A Review of Key Concepts

The growth of violent extremist groups in the West Asia - North Africa (WANA) region has impelled academic and policy interest in radicalisation pathways and their drivers. But while radicalisation models usually incorporate identity-related factors, identity itself is rarely a central focus. To fil...
Author : Leen Aghabi, Kim Wilkinson, Dr Neven Bondokji, Alethea Osborne
25 Dec 2017

From Blades to Brains: A New Battleground

With the recent military defeat of Daesh, the group has lost grip on its Caliphate. What remains, however, is the ideological appeal of joining its cause. In this vein, Preventing/Countering Violent Extremism efforts must be reassessed and restructured to address needs related to countering the ideo...
Author : Nadine Sayegh, Barik Mhadeen, Dr Neven Bondokji
25 Dec 2017

Lessons from State-Sponsored Counter-Narrative Campaigns

Winning the ideological fight against violent extremist groups such as Daesh, requires building and developing counter-narratives capable of fighting an idea with an idea. Since the task of creating counter-narratives is broad, the state often leads the efforts. Therefore, it is beneficial to examin...
Author : Nadine Sayegh, Barik Mhadeen, Dr Neven Bondokji
19 Dec 2017

Engendering Extremism: Gender Equality and Radicalisation in the WANA Region

It has been suggested that 3,000 of the 20,000 foreign fighters who have travelled to join Daesh have been women, and while focus has primarily been upon those who came from the West, women from the WANA region were also drawn to the cause. A discussion about the relationship between gender and viol...
Author : Alethea Osborne
18 Dec 2017

Charter on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism

This charter presents a grounding document for policy-makers, donors, and implementing partners working on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism (P/CVE) in Jordan. Various stakeholders are already undertaking valuable P/CVE work in Jordan and this charter acknowledges the importance of that wo...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Alethea Osborne, Nadine Sayegh, Barik Mhadeen
17 Dec 2017

Statistics Brief: Syrian Refugee Employment Trends in Jordan

This statistics brief discusses Syrian refugee employment trends in Jordan based on a survey of 501 Syrian refugees across Amman, Irbid, Mafraq and Zarqa carried out by market research firm IPSOS in August 2017. The survey was designed with the purpose of accurately reflecting the demographic breakd...
Author : Shaddin Alhajahmad, Dorsey Lockhart
23 Nov 2017

Investment and Business in Jordan to Create Employment: Opportunities and Challenges

This paper lays out the investment and business regulations in Jordan, and highlight the gaps between regulation and practice. The report is based on desk research and interviews with international organisations, lawyers, business owners from Amman, Zarqa, and Irbid, and government officials from th...
Author : Maria Mikadze, Shaddin Alhajahmad
02 Nov 2017

Towards a Unified Human Security and P/CVE Method in Jordan: Challenges and Changes

The threat of violent extremism facing the West Asia-North Africa (WANA) region and beyond has signalled the need for broader and more holistic conceptualisations of the key notions underpinning the phenomenon. To date, governments, donors and practitioners have approached Preventing and Countering ...
Author : Nadine Sayegh, Dr Neven Bondokji
18 Sep 2017

Nine Recommendations to Bolster the Jordan Compact

Since its signing in February 2016, the Jordan Compact has been hailed as an innovative, holistic approach that prioritises development goals in the context of a protracted humanitarian crisis. Yet as the much hoped for growth in exports to Europe — a cornerstone of the agreement — has failed to mat...
Author : Dorsey Lockhart
24 Aug 2017

Journey Mapping of Selected Jordanian Foreign Fighters

Despite significant knowledge around the drivers of radicalisation, little is known about the motivations, influences and/or stressors in play when someone harbouring radical ideology decides to join an extremist group or use violence to express their ideological convictions. Building understanding ...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Dr Erica Harper
14 Aug 2017

Jordan’s Recent Economic Performance: Implications for Future Growth, Investment, Refugee Policy and Refugees

The past six years have been transformative for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. As a result of the civil war in Syria, the country has absorbed more than 660,000 Syrian refugees according to the United Nations Refugee Agency; while the official census, which was conducted in December 2015, estimate...
Author : Shaddin Alhajahmad, Dorsey Lockhart
14 Aug 2017

Syrian Refugee Labour Integration Policy in Jordan

​Jordan's policy to provide limited worker rights to Syrian refugees went into effect in April 2016. A wide range of stakeholders have supported the effort to formalise Syrian labour. Official data suggests that the Syrian refugee crisis has had little impact on leading macroeconomic indicators. Yet...
Author : Shaddin Alhajahmad, Dorsey Lockhart
02 May 2017

Examining Psychological Drivers of Radicalisation in Jordan

Since the start of the Syrian conflict in 2011, it is estimated that over 35,000 foreign fighters have joined Sunni militant groups, such as Daesh and al-Qaeda in Iraq and Syria. The threat posed by such groups — both inside conflict zones and in countries of origin — has focused attention on the dr...
Author : Dr Erica Harper
18 Apr 2017

From Politics to Policy: Building Regional Resilience in West Asia and North Africa

From Politics to Policy: Building Resilience in West Asia and North Africa is an anthology of research conducted by the WANA Institute between 2015 and 2016 in the areas of human security, social justice, and sustainability. The chapters point to increased inter-sectorial collaboration being the key...
Author : WANA Institute
21 Feb 2017

Trapped Between Destructive Choices: Radicalisation Drivers Affecting Youth In Jordan

Research on radicalisation drivers points to complex dynamics that include economic, social, psychological, and ideological push and pull factors. This report analyses radicalisation drivers that affect Jordanian and Syrian refugee youth in four radicalisation hotbeds: Ma’an, Salt, Irbid, and Rusayf...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Kim Wilkinson, Leen Aghabi
01 Jan 2017

Refugee Labour Inclusion: Turkey and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

The following report is an assessment of the viability and the modalities of including Syrian refugees in the labour markets of the following host states: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and Turkey. Due to a lack of data available on refugee skillsets, the ability to quantify absorption capacity by se...
Author : Shaddin Alhajahmad, Dr Erica Harper
28 Nov 2016

Building Resilience and Sustaining Peace in the West Asia – North Africa Region: Reflections

To inform policy discussions taking place at the UN and in other international fora on the outcomes of the recent UN reviews on peace and security with experiences and perspectives of the regional and country level, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation (the Foundation), in collaboration with the West Asi...
Author : WANA Institute
06 Oct 2016

Contingency Planning for Post-Conflict Syria

War is unilaterally destructive. Victories come at heavy costs and agreements force painful compromise. Moreover, for many civil conflicts, the end is inconclusive. Some two-thirds of countries devolve back into warfare within a decade. The civil conflict in Syria – sectarian, ideological, and inter...
Author : Annalisa Bezzi, Emily Hawley
20 Sep 2016

The Correlates of Civil Conflict and Instability in the West Asia-North Africa Region - Conflict Resilience Model Background Paper

One  of  the  principal  findings  of  this  research is  that against  clear global  trends,  conflict in  the West  Asia  and  North  Africa  (WANA)  region  is  intensifying.  There  are  four  reasons  to  be concerned  about  this  situation  beyond  the  death  and  suffering  that  conflicts ...
Author : Kim Wilkinson, Mays Abdel Aziz, Emily Hawley
08 Sep 2016

Understanding Radicalisation: A Literature Review of Models and Drivers

Interest  in  the  drivers  of,  and  models  to  explain,  the  processes  of  radicalisation  has increased  exponentially  since  the  terrorist  attacks  of  11  September  2001. Attention  has focused  on  the West Asia-North Africa  (WANA)  region due  to  the expansion and  reach  of armed ra...
Author : Dr Neven Bondokji, Leen Aghabi, Kim Wilkinson
21 Jan 2016

Forging New Strategies in Protracted Refugee Crises: Regional Study

The Syrian refugee crisis is exposing the inadequacy of international refugee policy for responding to complex, protracted crises in the contemporary era. As the fighting in Syria drags on indefinitely, host states in Syria’s neighbourhood are facing new challenges and increasingly struggling to pro...
31 Dec 2015

The Case for Establishing an International Labour Compensatory Facility

Moderate migration is nominally positive for both hosts and migrants and creates mixed outcomes for countries of origin depending on their size and wealth. In small and less wealthy countries, migration can often breach a tipping point, after which benefits associated with remittances no longer outw...
Author : Dr Erica Harper, Adel Elsayed Sparr, Mays Abdel Aziz
10 Dec 2015

The Case for a WANA Regional Development Bank

New and better solutions are needed to respond to the economic challenges that are affecting the West Asia- North Africa (WANA) region and potentially maintaining it in a conflict trap. These solutions must evolve from the region itself, both for sustainability and to galvanise the political will ne...
Author : Mays Abdel Aziz
01 Oct 2015

Forging New Strategies in Protracted Refugee Crises: Syrian Refugees and the Host State Economy: Jordan Case Study

The Syrian refugee crisis is exposing the inadequacy of international refugee policy for responding to complex, protracted crises in the contemporary era. As the fighting in Syria drags on indefinitely, host states in Syria’s neighbourhood are facing new challenges and increasingly struggling to pro...
Author : Sean D. Thomas, Mays Abdel Aziz, Dr Erica Harper
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